Note: Links are enumerated at the end of the article. If you still don’t understand, feel free to comment
1) Quantum Cryptography
For this, you need to have a good hold on (1) Heisenberg’s principle, not just the formula but the concept itself. You also need to know (2) Fourier’s series and, you need to know how to use (3) Fourier analysis to resolve and understand Heisenberg’s principle. These cannot be explained in short so make sure to follow the links below if you don’t know and come back to read the article once you know what they are.
Quantum Cryptography is based on the (4) “thought experiment” or better known as “Heisenberg’s Microscope”, proposed by Heisenberg in 1927, to back his theory which is still not yet proven wrong although it is at the verge of being so. If the theory is correct, you cannot interact with anything, without effecting its uncertainty. Scientists are developing quantum encoders and modulators which will encrypt messages at quantum level and the destination will be informed about the uncertainty in the source code based on which it will be decoded. When anyone will try to eavesdrop, no matter even with photon, the uncertainty will be effected and the destination will immediately know something is wrong. This will be the ultimate level of security. However, some papers published about 4 years ago shows that there is this method called (5) “Weak measurements” which can actually interact without effecting the uncertainty. While the debate is still on, the problem remains unsolved and the research, hanging with millions of dollars in the pot. Anybody out there willing to solve this?
2) Coronal Loops & Coronal Mass Ejection
This is perhaps a dream come true for any physics enthusiasts - watching with naked eyes, the magnetic field lines. The majestic prowess of sun can be comprehended only when we see how it can twist magnetic field lines of intensity which hold the entire solar system together into loops the size of 3-5 earths. However the real mystery comes when we see how suns entire surface is full of these giant very, very strong magnetic flux loops yet coronal loops are very rare.
Check out this awesome animation about how the field lines twists
What makes a giant twisted loop of magnetic flux a (1) coronal loop is the process which feeds these field lines with plasma from the transition region of (2) “Chromosphere”, and “Corona”. The problem is, though these loops extend far beyond corona, their roots are actually far deep inside- down to the “photosphere” and here lies the problem. Scientists still doesn’t know any mechanism at the coronal level which can feed coronal plasma to the dense magnetic flux loop which starts deep down in the photosphere. Billions of dollars are invested in research for CME (coronal mass ejections) and thus anyone who solves this will sure get quite a fortune and maybe a Nobel too. Anyone?
3) The Variable Decay Rate Mystery
This is the new game in town for all PHDs in physics.Follow this link to read the entire article in detail: http://news.stanford.edu/news/2010/august/sun-082310.html. In short, what they found is that one of the most constant thing known to us-the rate of radioactive decay of materials like carbon-14, is not constant. This varies at the same exact 33 days’ time period as that of the sun’s core. The periodicity itself rules out any probability of miscalculation or environmental influence. Now the prime suspect for this is (1) “neutrinos”. Neutrinos are formed in the core of the sun when (2) “Hydrogen eventually changes to Helium”.
But there lies the problem- neutrinos are extremely weak interacting particles as they interact through (3) “The Weak Force”, so much that if you want to stop a neutrino, you will require a minimum of 4 light years of Pb (lead) to have a good chance. A thing which is so weak in interacting cannot just effect things like radioactive decays on earth-they should just pass right through. Either we need a new physics to understand it or sun is emitting some other mystery particle. Either way, there is a lot of money for research in neutrino and plus, it is hell exciting!
4) The Quantum Cheshire Cat
Those of you that read Alice in Wonderland, you know what Cheshire cat is- it’s a cat whose grim gets separated from its body. In 2014, a new experiment was conducted named (1) “Observation of a quantum Cheshire Cat in a matter-wave interferometer experiment”. This is perhaps the most hard to explain in writing. However for all you physics lovers, here’s what they have done-they have successfully separated the magnetic moment of neutrons from their bodies.
I suggest you watch this video by University of Nottingham, Sixty Symbols: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YbzblfdgwXY
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What they have done is that they have used the property of quantum superposition and made a single beam of neutrons to interfere with the help of interferometry. That is, when the first interferometer splits the beam into two, according to quantum mechanics, the same neutron travels in two different paths simultaneously. When they pass from the second interferometer, they are made to interfere and hence interference pattern is observed. However, then they introduced a (reference needed) “spin rotator” on one of the path. Due to the different spins of the two realities of same neutron, when they finally collapse into one reality, they no more gives the interference pattern. This is not it. What they have done is, they have also introduced a (reference needed) “spin identifier” after the second interferometer. Now this will allow only those neutrons to pass through which has a specific spin set by us. This decreased the output. To know which path was the one to give the output, they tried blocking slightly each of the paths to see which one effected the output. Finally, they thought of using a magnet to change the spin of one of the path into that of the other. This will result in both paths having the same spin. Now if this spin is that of the identifier then both the neutrons will pass through and give interference pattern always and if not then it won’t. The results came to be different. They found that still there is a randomness in the probability of obtaining interference pattern.
Skipping the Chase, what they found was that both the neutrons followed one of the path randomly while both of their moments followed the other path. The cat was separated from its grin. Confusing right?
5) Total number of confirmed elementary particles in the standard model
This one is a bonus and small one but if you love physics, you have to know this. All total, there are 61 confirmed elementary particles in the standard model. Go here to see all of them http://physics.info/standard/practice.shtml
5) http://www.tau.ac.il/~quantum/aav.html & https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weak_measurement
Coronal Loops & Coronal Mass Ejections
The Variable Decay Rate Mystery:
The Quantum Cheshire Cat
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